Objective: To determine overall survival time and identify prognostic factors associated with survival time in cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.
Design: Retrospective case series.
Animals: 114 cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.
Procedures: Data for analysis included history, signalment, physical examination findings, hematologic and serum biochemical data, presence of ketoacidosis, and diagnosis of concurrent diseases at initial evaluation. The effects of possible predictors on survival time were determined by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results: Median survival time of diabetic cats was 516 days (range, 1 to 3,468 days); 70%, 64%, and 46% lived longer than 3, 6, and 24 months, respectively. Survival time was significantly shorter for cats with higher creatinine concentrations, with a hazard of dying approximately 5% greater for each increase of 10 μg/dL in serum creatinine concentration (adjusted HR, 1.005; 95% CI, 1.003 to 1.007). Ketoacidosis was not significantly associated with survival time (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.590 to 1.78).
Conclusions and clinical relevance: Cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus had a fair to good prognosis. High serum creatinine concentration at diagnosis was associated with a poor outcome, likely because of the adverse effects of renal dysfunction. Ketoacidosis apparently was not associated with decreased survival time, suggesting that this complication should not necessarily be regarded as unfavorable.
EPub: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 2013 Jul 1;243(1):91-5
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Congenital pituitary dwarfism is a rare disease due to inadequate pituitary GH secretion. It’s mainly described in German Shepherd dogs and the classical clinical signs, related to retardation of growth, are well described in the veterinary literature. Less information are present regarding the diagnostic procedures and the therapeutic approach of the disease. In this case series the clinical pathology findings of 4 German Shepherd dogs, referred for poor growth and abnormally soft and woolly hair coat are described. Hypothesis of pituitary dwarfism was confirmed by physical examination and a complete diagnostic work-up including the GHRH stimulation test, the serum concentration of IGFI and a specific genetic test that permit to detect the mutation of the gene Lhx3.
The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of Haptoglobin (Hp), C-reactive protein (CRP) and Fibrinogen (Fib) in dogs with spontaneous hypercortisolism (HCT), diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypothyroidism. Stored (-20°C) serum (Hp and CRP) or citrate plasma (Fib) samples from 35 dogs with HCT (31 PDH and 4 FAT), 24 with DM and 7 with hypothyroidism were analyzed. All samples were obtained from newly diagnosed dogs before starting the therapy for the specific endocrinopathy. Reference ranges for APPs were previously obtained from a population of 25 clinically healthy dogs. CRP and Hp were measured using human immunoturbidometric assays validated in our laboratory for the dog, as previously reported. CRP concentrations (reference range 0-0.5 mg/dl) were between 0.01 and 1.63 (median 0.01; abnormal in 14.3% of cases), between 0.01 and 11.60 (median 1.03; abnormal in 62.5% of cases), and between 0.01 and 9.82 (median 0.01; abnormal in 42.9% of cases) in HCT, DM an hypothyroid dogs respectively. Hp concentrations (reference range 20-140 mg/dl) were between 0 and 590 (median 276; abnormal in 82.9% of cases), between 61 and 387 (median 152; abnormal in 62.5% of cases), and between 2 and 242 (median 109; abnormal in 42.9% of cases) in HCT, DM an hypothyroid dogs respectively. Fib concentrations (reference range 1.45-3.85 g/l) were between 0.82 and 6.16 (median 3.77; abnormal in 47.1% of cases), between 2.32 and 4.27 (median 3.63; abnormal in 41.7% of cases), and between 3.31 and 6.69 (median 4.40; abnormal in 71.4% of cases) in HCT, DM an hypothyroid dogs respectively. CRP concentrations were significantly lower (p<0.001) in HCT compared to DM dogs. Hp concentrations were significantly higher in HCT compared to DM (p<0.001) and hypothyroidism (p=0.003). Fib was higher in dogs with hypothyroidism compared to dogs with DM but not statistically significant (p=0.051). Only 5 dogs with HCT had a (mild) increase of CRP: 2 had also a severe pyoderma, 2 concomitant DM with ketoacidosis and 1 concomitant mediastinal tumor and haemolytic anaemia. In these cases we considered inadequate the increase of CRP when compared to the expected acute phase response. The high serum concentrations of Hp in dogs with HCT has already been observed and our results are comparable to those reported in the literature. Lack of exact knowledge regarding the inflammatory/infectious status of each dog is the main limitation of this study. In conclusion APPs were high in a large number of dogs with endocrinopathies and this is probably due to the high incidence of concomitant infectious diseases. CRP is low in dogs with HCT and, like Hp, in this endocrinopathy should be considered a poor marker of the acute phase response. Further studies are required to assess whether serum Hp and CRP could be useful for the diagnostic protocol of dogs with HCT.
A 6-month-old German shepherd dog was presented for progressive paraparesis. Multiple arteriovenous fistulae and hyperostosis of the thoracic vertebrae with secondary thoraco-lumbar spinal cord compression were diagnosed. Arteriovenous spinal fistula is a rare condition but should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young dogs with progressive paraparesis.